Somalia Office of the Un Resident & Humanitarian Coordinator

Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Somalia 2003

Humanitarian Context

The deterioration due to war of social, economic and political systems has placed most Somalis - save for the warlords, the cadres of lieutenants and the dynamic Somali business community - in a perpetual state of livelihood and social vulnerability. Basic coping mechanisms have allowed the chronically vulnerable-totaling about 750,000-to maintain a finger hold on survival, albeit at levels far below acceptable. Within these communities are the most acutely vulnerable, many of whom have few, if any, capacities to acquire and maintain even the most basic assets needed for survival. Humanitarian access to these groups remained intermittent, in particular in the southern, central and northeastern parts of the country as tension and conflict increased in 2002 to levels not seen in years. Nonetheless, opportunities for positive action exist throughout Somalia.

Key Features of the Crisis

- Prolonged food insecurity and vulnerability resulting from limited employment opportunities, inflation, volatile markets for cereals and a ban on livestock exports, combined with successive years of crop failure, flooding, conflict and demographic changes.

- As a result, about 750,000 Somalis are chronically vulnerable.

- Of these, about 350,000 are internally displaced nationwide, with the highest concentration of 150,000 in Mogadishu.

- Another 400,000 Somalis remain in exile abroad.

- Malnutrition of children aged five and under continues to be a chronic problem in the southern and central regions, with rates as high as 39 and 27 in some areas.

- Out of every 1,000 infants born, 224 die before they reach the age of five.

- About 49 of the population lives without access to sanitation and 77 without access to safe water.

- While increasing, the Gross Enrolment Ratio is still only 17 and only 17 of the adult population is literate.

- An estimated 1.2 to 2 million landmines have been laid throughout Somalia since 1997, inhibiting free movement, trade and humanitarian access.

- Overall, the country is ranked among the least five developed countries on earth by UNDP's 2001 Human Development Report for Somalia.

In sharp contrast to the images these statistics provoke, hope for the future is found in the people of Somalia themselves. The challenge of the international community is to take advantage of the windows of opportunity they have created through initiatives, such as those below, to promote peace.

- In northwestern 'Somaliland,' local entrepreneurial and community leaders have virtually re-built the war ravaged capital of Hargeisa with very limited outside support and capacity and are successfully striving to maintain peace, security and good governance; provide services to the people; and adhere to international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law.

- Throughout Somalia, entrepreneurs have filled the gaps to provide vital services such as telecommunications, financial services, air transport and electricity.

- In some of the most unstable areas of southern and central Somalia, peace has been negotiated by community consensus and maintained through the continued reconciliation efforts of civil society, often with women playing a leading role.

- Local authorities in several areas are cooperating with the United Nations, the European Commission and international NGOs in their efforts to broker humanitarian access agreements based on international humanitarian law and principles.

Strategy for Humanitarian Action

The activities reflected in the 2003 appeal seek to address emergency needs by building on ongoing efforts to save lives and strengthen sustainable livelihood opportunities, while at the same time, bolstering those to build peace from the grassroots up, creating conditions that will sustain an eventual agreement between the warring parties. Special attention will be paid to vulnerable groups, including returning refugees, internally displaced persons, host communities and minority groups. To that end, the humanitarian community has adopted the following goals and priorities for 2003:

1. Saving lives and improving livelihoods by:

- meeting immediate needs and strengthening the coping mechanisms of vulnerable households,

- enhancing access to vulnerable populations through strengthened field security, information and coordination measures, and

- promoting linkages with regional organizations and other actors within the Horn of Africa.

2. Assisting in the integration and protection of displaced populations, minorities, refugees returning form exile and other vulnerable groups by enhancing protection efforts aimed at:

- capacity-building,

- participation in governance,

- increased humanitarian access,

- awareness raising,

- promotion of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement with local authorities; and

- the development and promotion of durable solutions.

3. Supporting good governance, peace building and economic recovery by enhancing organizational and managerial capacities of civil society organizations and non-governmental organisations to:

- stimulate household income,

- ensure adequate access to and terms of trade,

- lift the livestock ban, and

- diversify income generating opportunities.

Requirements - US$
UN agencies
Health and Nutrition
Food Security and Rural Development
Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure
Coordination, Security and Information
Mine Action
Protection, Reintegration and Governance

For further information, please contact:

For more information, please contact:
Calum McLean, Chief of UN Coordination Unit (calum.mclean@undp.org)

Tel: (254 2) 4448434
Fax: (254 2)

To track financial tables related to the Somalia 2003 Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP), or to find out more information about worldwide CAPs, please visit ReliefWeb at the website address provided below:

Website: www.reliefweb.int/appeals

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